Leveraging Redpanda's Compatibility with Debezium to stream changes from MySQL.

ByAlmas MaksotovonAugust 29, 2021
Using Debezium and Redpanda for CDC

Introduction: How to set up CDC stream in Redpanda

In this tutorial, you are going to build a CDC stream using Redpanda and Debezium. Note that the entire Kafka Connect ecosystem works out of the box with Redpanda, as Redpanda is API-compatible with Apache KafkaⓇ.

What is change data capture (CDC)?

CDC is the process of recognizing when data has been changed in a source system so a downstream process or system can take action on that change.

Why would you use it?

Here are some popular use cases:

  • Safe migration from legacy systems
  • Division of monolithic data
  • Real-time analytics
  • Easy integrations
  • Cache invalidations
  • Outbox patterns

Note: Redpanda aims to be fully compatible with Kafka APIs, so all existing connectors should work with Redpanda without any changes.


Quick tour of services

  • Redpanda - The modern data streaming platform
  • Kafka Connect - Integrations that connect Kafka with other data systems
  • Debezium - A set of plugins used by Kafka Connect to capture changes in databases
  • MySQL - Database

Debezium and Redpanda tutorial for CDC

Let's start our tutorial by looking at the Docker Compose file. We encourage you to set up a working directory, and follow along.

mkdir debezium && cd debezium && touch redpanda-debezium.compose.yml

# redpanda-debezium.compose.yml version: "3.3" services: redpanda: image: vectorized/redpanda ports: - "9092:9092" - "29092:29092" command: - redpanda - start - --overprovisioned - --smp - "1" - --memory - "1G" - --reserve-memory - "0M" - --node-id - "0" - --kafka-addr - PLAINTEXT://,OUTSIDE:// - --advertise-kafka-addr - PLAINTEXT://redpanda:29092,OUTSIDE://redpanda:9092 - --check=false connect: image: debezium/connect depends_on: - redpanda ports: - "8083:8083" environment: BOOTSTRAP_SERVERS: "redpanda:9092" GROUP_ID: "1" CONFIG_STORAGE_TOPIC: "inventory.configs" OFFSET_STORAGE_TOPIC: "inventory.offset" STATUS_STORAGE_TOPIC: "inventory.status" mysql: image: debezium/example-mysql:1.6 ports: - "3306:3306" environment: MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD: debezium MYSQL_USER: mysqluser MYSQL_PASSWORD: mysqlpw

These services are in the same network, so they are reachable from each other. Also, their service name resolves to their IP addressses in the network. We can ping Redpanda from Kafka Connect:

$ docker ps --format "table {{.Names}}\t{{.Status}}\t{{.Names}}" Output: NAMES STATUS NAMES debezium_connect_1 Up 6 minutes debezium_connect_1 debezium_mysql_1 Up 6 minutes debezium_mysql_1 debezium_redpanda_1 Up 6 minutes debezium_redpanda_1 $ docker exec -it debezium_connect_1 /bin/bash # starts and attaches to the shell inside container [kafka@a48a914cf7f1 ~]$ ping redpanda PING redpanda ( 56(84) bytes of data. 64 bytes from debezium_redpanda_1.debezium_default ( icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.152 ms 64 bytes from debezium_redpanda_1.debezium_default ( icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.103 ms ^C --- redpanda ping statistics --- 2 packets transmitted, 2 received, 0% packet loss, time 1010ms rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.103/0.127/0.152/0.026 ms

The environment variables and values are intended to be self-explanatory, but you can go to the Docker Hub and read about their meaning.

Run docker-compose -f redpanda-debezium.compose.yml up

Once everything has successfully started, open a new terminal session and enter into the Redpanda shell.

$ docker exec -it debezium_redpanda_1 /bin/bash redpanda@67f3306a7a30:/$ rpk topic list Name Partitions Replicas inventory.configs 1 1 inventory.offset 25 1 inventory.status 5 1

These are management topics required for Kafka Connect to run in distributed mode.

Let's do the same for MySQL:

$ docker exec -it debezium_mysql_1 /bin/bash root@7119b581859f:/$ mysql -u mysqluser -pmysqlpw mysql> use inventory; # this is example database pre-created during start-up mysql> show tables; +---------------------+ | Tables_in_inventory | +---------------------+ | addresses | | customers | | geom | | orders | | products | | products_on_hand | +---------------------+ 6 rows in set (0.00 sec) # we are interested in customers mysql> select * from customers; +------+------------+-----------+-----------------------+ | id | first_name | last_name | email | +------+------------+-----------+-----------------------+ | 1001 | Sally | Thomas | sally.thomas@acme.com | | 1002 | George | Bailey | gbailey@foobar.com | | 1003 | Edward | Walker | ed@walker.com | | 1004 | Anne | Kretchmar | annek@noanswer.org | +------+------------+-----------+-----------------------+ 4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

Now we need to start capturing changes. For this purpose, Kafka Connect exposes a REST API through which we can upload configuration parameters. For example:

{ "name": "inventory-connector", "config": { "connector.class": "io.debezium.connector.mysql.MySqlConnector", "tasks.max": "1", "database.hostname": "mysql", "database.port": "3306", "database.user": "debezium", "database.password": "dbz", "database.server.id": "184054", "database.server.name": "dbserver1", "database.include.list": "inventory", "database.history.kafka.bootstrap.servers": "redpanda:9092", "database.history.kafka.topic": "schema-changes.inventory" } }

Some important parameters:

  • connector.class - class that implements capturing logic. In our case, it will read mysql binlogs.
  • database.server.\* - to identify mysql server. Will be used as a prefix when creating topics.
  • database.include.list - list of table names to include.
  • database.history.kafka.topic - connect will upload db schemas there, and will use it to inform from where connect should begin reading if restarted.

All we have to do is to upload this configuration to Kafka Connect:

Note: perform this curl command on the host machine. The Docker Compose file exposes port 8083.

curl --request POST \ --url http://localhost:8083/connectors \ --header 'Content-Type: application/json' \ --data '{ "name": "inventory-connector", "config": { "connector.class": "io.debezium.connector.mysql.MySqlConnector", "tasks.max": "1", "database.hostname": "mysql", "database.port": "3306", "database.user": "debezium", "database.password": "dbz", "database.server.id": "184054", "database.server.name": "dbserver1", "database.include.list": "inventory", "database.history.kafka.bootstrap.servers": "redpanda:9092", "database.history.kafka.topic": "schema-changes.inventory" } }' # response should be 201

After executing the above curl command, Kafka Connect is set up. It will start reading binlogs from MySQL and streaming changes to Redpanda.

redpanda@67f3306a7a30:/$ rpk topic list Name Partitions Replicas dbserver1 1 1 dbserver1.inventory.addresses 1 1 dbserver1.inventory.customers 1 1 dbserver1.inventory.geom 1 1 dbserver1.inventory.orders 1 1 dbserver1.inventory.products 1 1 dbserver1.inventory.products_on_hand 1 1 inventory.configs 1 1 inventory.offset 25 1 inventory.status 5 1 schema-changes.inventory 1 1

As you can see, Kafka Connect created topics for each table. We are interested in the dbserver1.inventory.customers topic, as it is the only table present in include.list.

redpanda@67f3306a7a30:/$ rpk topic consume dbserver1.inventory.customers ... # it will start streaming changes as json payload { "key": {...} "message": {...} "partition": 0, "offset": 0, "timestamp": "2021-08-29T16:47:04.436Z" }

This is the representation of a change to the row in customer table. The message field contains details about schema, operation type, and the before and after value of the row.

{ "schema": { "type": "struct", "fields": [ ... ], "optional": false, "name": "dbserver1.inventory.customers.Envelope" }, "payload": { "before": null, "after": { "id": 1004, "first_name": "Anne", "last_name": "Kretchmar", "email": "annek@noanswer.org" }, "source": { "version": "1.6.1.Final", "connector": "mysql", "name": "dbserver1", "ts_ms": 1630246982521, "snapshot": "true", "db": "inventory", "sequence": null, "table": "customers", "server_id": 0, "gtid": null, "file": "mysql-bin.000008", "pos": 154, "row": 0, "thread": null, "query": null }, "op": "r", "ts_ms": 1630246982521, "transaction": null } }

Do not interrupt consumption by trying to make changes to the customers table.

mysql> UPDATE customers SET first_name='Anne Marie' WHERE id=1004; Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec) Rows matched: 1 Changed: 1 Warnings: 0

As you update, you should see new records arriving in the consumer.

Feel free to have fun and create as many changes as you want!

Here is an overview of what is happening.



You can see how easy it is to set up CDC streams using Redpanda. Feel free to play around and set up CDC streams from other popular database systems.


This tutorial is heavily inspired by the Debezium getting started tutorial. There you can find additional details about configuration parameters and set up with Kafka+ZooKeeper, so feel free to check it out.

And, don't forget to join the Redpanda Community on Slack where you can share what you're working on and learn what others in our community are building.

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